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Duk waɗannan dabarun sinadarai na aji 8

I. Formula don Lissafi na MOL (MOL)

1. Da juzu’i:
n = m/m
A can:
m: mas
M: ƙwayar ƙwayar cuta, ƙwayar tsoka
Misali 1
Ƙara gram 2.4 na Mg zuwa ƙetare maganin HCl. Yi lissafin adadin iskar hydrogen da aka samu a ƙarƙashin yanayi
misali. (Na Mg=24)
2. By girma (na gas a daidaitattun yanayi):
n = V/22.4
A can:
V: yawan gas
Misali 2
Ƙara gram 6.75 na ƙarfe na aluminum zuwa bayani mai tsarma na H2SO4. An gama amsawa
3.36 lita na gas (naúrar ptc).
a. Rubuta ma’auni don amsawa.
b. Yi lissafin adadin gishiri da aka samu bayan amsawa.
(An ba da: Zn = 65; H = 1; S = 32; O = 16)

II. FORMULA DON LISSAFI ABUN MAGANI

1. Molarity a kowace lita (CM)
CM = n/V (M)

FORMULA DON LISSAFI ABUN MAGANI

Misali 3

Don kawar da duk gram 200 na 10% NaOH bayani, adadin grams na 3.65% HCl ana buƙata.

(na = 23; Cl = 35.5; O = 16; H = 1)

Misali 4

Don 200ml na 8% NaOH bayani tare da D = 1.15g/ml, amsa tare da 380g na maganin MgCl2 5%.

  1. Rubuta makarantar sakandare. Wane abu ya rage? Yi lissafin yawan ragowar.
  2. Yi lissafin yawan hazo da aka kafa. Bayan cire hazo, lissafta C% na abubuwan da suka rage bayan amsawa.

Shi ke nan

Dabarun da aka nuna a hoton sune

Ƙimar dangantaka C%, CAmurka yawa

Formula don ƙididdige yawa (D)

Tattara %

Formula na kashi kashi

  1. Kashi na nauyi:
  2. Ƙirar kashi (wanda shine kashi a cikin moles):

Basic 8th, 9th formula chemical formula don tunawa

Mahimman dabarun sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa sun haɗa da: dabara don ƙididdige adadin moles, dabara don ƙididdige yawan ƙwayar mole, dabara don ƙididdige yawan %, dabara don ƙididdige taro, dabara don ƙididdige ƙarar mafita …

Hanyoyin sinadarai 21 don aji 8, 9 don tunawa

Ka’idojin gama gari
Formula don ƙididdige ƙarar bayani
Formula don ƙididdige ƙarar bayani
Nau'in mahaɗan inorganic

Takaitacciyar dabarar sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa – batu na 1

Chemistry na digiri na 8 yana gabatar da ɗalibai zuwa mafi kyawun ilimin Chemistry. Menene sinadari, menene sinadarin sinadari. Menene bambanci tsakanin zarra da kwayoyin? Tare da wannan, yaran kuma za su koyi wasu dabarun sinadarai.

A ƙasa akwai taƙaitaccen dabarun sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa a babi na farko: Abubuwa – Atoms – Molecules – Valence. Musamman, dabarun da ke da alaƙa da ƙwayar atomic, ƙwayar ƙwayoyin cuta, ƙa’idar valency na wani abu.

1, Haɗa dabarar sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa – Kashi na 1: Abu – Atom.

Babban ilimi game da Quality

Abu yana ko’ina, inda akwai abu, akwai abu.

Abun da ya ƙunshi abubuwa ɗaya ko fiye. Misali, aluminium kettles an yi su da aluminum, ana yin kekuna da ƙarfe, aluminum, da roba.

Kowane abu yana da wasu kaddarorin jiki da sinadarai. Misali, ruwa yana tafasa a digiri 100 kuma yana daskarewa a digiri 0. Sugar yana da dadi, jan karfe kuma ja ne.

Cakuda: Abubuwa biyu ko fiye da suka gauraye tare ana kiran su cakuduwar. A lura cewa ruwa na halitta ya ƙunshi abubuwa da yawa waɗanda suke gauraye. Distilled ruwa mai tsarki ne

Rarraba abubuwa daga gaurayawan: Dangane da bambanci a cikin kaddarorin jiki irin su solubility, wuraren tafasa na abubuwa, yana yiwuwa a raba wani abu daga cakuda.

Babban ilimi game da Atom

An ayyana zarra a matsayin ƙarami sosai kuma tsaka tsaki na lantarki.

Tsarin zarra ya ƙunshi harsashi atom da kuma tsakiya na atom

Cibiyar zarra ta ƙunshi nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’in) caja-protons,neutrons marasa caja da kuma na’urorin lantarki masu muni.

Samfurin tsarin tsakiya na atomic
Samfurin tsarin tsakiya na atomic

Halaye da dabara na atomic nucleus

  • Atom ba su da tsaka tsaki ta hanyar lantarki, don haka adadin protons daidai yake da adadin electrons. Ina da dabara p = e. Wannan daya ne asali sinadaran dabara thcs
  • Electrons koyaushe suna motsawa a kusa da tsakiya kuma suna jera su cikin yadudduka
  • Protons da neutrons suna da taro iri ɗaya. Muna da dabara: m (p) = m (n)
  • Electrons suna da ƙananan taro, don haka maɗaukakin tsakiya shine ma’auni na tsakiya. Muna da dabara: m (atom) = m (nucleus)

Ilimin asali na Abubuwan Sinadarai

Sinadarin sinadaran: Tarin atom na nau’in iri ɗaya, suna da adadin protons iri ɗaya a cikin tsakiya. Kowane sinadari yana wakilta ta alamar sinadarai. Misali: Na, K, S, Cl, Fe

Atomic mass shine adadin zarra a cikin raka’o’in carbon. Kowane zarra yana da takamaiman taro.

Naúrar carbon (unitC): 1 raka’aC = 1/12 m (Carbon)

A cikin nau’in atomic mass C – m (Carbon) = 1.9926. 10 -23

2, Haɗa dabarar sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa – Sashe na 2: Kwayoyin Halitta

Kwayoyin halitta wakilcin wani abu ne, wanda ya ƙunshi adadin atom ɗin da aka haɗa tare kuma yana wakiltar cikakkiyar kaddarorin sinadarai na abun.

Molecules suna da nau’i biyu, kashi da fili

  • Elements: abubuwa ne da aka yi su da sinadarai guda ɗaya. Hydrogen gas (H2) wani sinadari ne guda ɗaya, wanda ya ƙunshi sinadarai guda ɗaya, hydrogen. A cikin abubuwan farko, sun kasu kashi biyu: abubuwan ƙarfe da abubuwan da ba na ƙarfe ba. Abubuwan ƙarfe suna da filastik, ƙarfin lantarki, ƙarancin zafi, luster na ƙarfe, da sauransu.
  • Haɗuwa: abubuwa ne da aka yi su da sinadarai biyu ko fiye. NaCl wani fili ne, wanda ya ƙunshi sinadarai guda biyu, sodium (Na) da chlorine (Cl).
Tsarin kwayoyin halitta na nitric acid (HNO3)
Tsarin kwayoyin halitta na nitric acid (HNO3)

Cikakken dabarar sinadarai Yi lissafin nauyin kwayoyin halitta:

Molecular mass = kwayoyin halitta (dvC) = jimlar adadin zarra na kashi. Atomic Block

Misalin abu mai sauki: Kwayar nitrogen ta kunshi kwayoyin halitta N 2. Don haka, adadin kwayoyin halitta na nitrogen yana daidai da sau 2 na atomic mass na N atom kuma yana daidai da 2.14 = 28 (dvC).

Misalin haɗe-haɗe: Kwayoyin halitta na hydrochloric acid (HCl) ya ƙunshi 1 hydrogen atom (H) da zarra na chlorine ɗaya (Cl). Don haka ana ƙididdige yawan adadin kwayoyin halitta na hydrochloric acid a matsayin jimlar atomic masses na H da Cl kuma yayi daidai da 1 + 35.5 = 36.5 (dvC).

3, Haɗa dabarar sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa – Sashe na 3: Tsarin sinadarai

Tsarin sinadarai na kashi ɗaya yana wakiltar nau’i biyu, A da A.x

  • Inda A yawanci wani ƙarfe ne tare da ƴan ƙarancin ƙarfe, misali Na, Fe, Cu, P, C, S
  • Kuma Ax Yawanci wani abu mara ƙarfe, wanda ya ƙunshi atom guda 2 waɗanda aka haɗa tare: O2H2mace2

Tsarin sinadarai na fili tare da dabara AxCIREyTSOHUWARz

Inda A, B, da C alamomin sinadarai ne, kuma x, y, da z su ne rubutun bayanai, wanda ke nuna adadin atom na wani abu a cikin kwayar halitta.

Ma’anar sinadarai: Tsarin sinadarai na kowane abu yana bayarwa

  • Adadin abubuwan da ke tattare da abu
  • Lambar atomic na kowane kashi
  • Mass kwayoyin halitta

Misali, sulfuric acid yana da tsarin sinadarai H2SO4

Don haka sulfuric acid yana samar da abubuwa 3 H, S, O

A cikin kwayoyin 1 na sulfuric acid akwai 2 H atoms, 1 S atom da 4 O.

Matsakaicin adadin kwayoyin 1 na sulfuric acid shine 2.1 + 1.32 + 4.16 = 98 (dvC).

4, Haɗa dabarun sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa – Sashe na 4: Chemotherapy

Ƙarfafan sinadari (ko rukuni na atoms) lamba ce da ke wakiltar iyawar haɗin zarra (ko ƙungiyar zarra), ƙaddara ta

valency na H, valency na H aka zaba a matsayin naúrar, valency na H ne 1 raka’a.

Ƙimar O shine raka’a 2

Ka’idar valence: AxCIREy -> ax = da

Wannan shine mafi mahimmancin dabarar valence, daga wannan dabarar da muke da ita Kimiyyar Kimiyya ta 9 alaka da chemotherapy daga baya

A can

a, b su ne valence na kashi.

x, y shine fihirisar ko adadin atom na kashi

5, Motsa jiki don amfani da wasu dabarun sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa

Darasi na 1: Jimillar adadin protons, neutrons, da electrons a cikin zarra guda 28 ne, wanda adadin da ba a caje su ya kai 10. Kididdige adadin barbashi na kowane nau’i.

Jagorar mafita

Barbashi mara caji shine neutron, don haka n = 10

Jimlar adadin protons, neutrons da electrons a cikin zarra shine 28, don haka muke nema. Dabarun sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa suna p + n + e = 28 (1)

Tunda yawan protons yayi daidai da adadin electrons, daga (1) muna da 2p + n = 28, da n = 10, don haka muna da p = lambar e = 9.

Don haka muna da adadin protons kuma electrons shine 9, adadin neutrons shine 10.

Darasi na 2: a) Kididdige yawan kwayar halittar kowane nau’in abubuwa masu zuwa: nitric acid, calcium sulfate, iron III oxide, barium hydroxide

  1. b) Ƙayyade yawan % na iskar oxygen a cikin kowane ɗayan ƙwayoyin da ke sama

Jagorar mafita

  1. a) nitric acid: HNO3 yana da adadin kwayoyin M = 1 + 14 + 3.16 = 63 (raka’a)

Calcium sulfate: CaSO4 wanda adadin kwayoyinsa shine M = 40 + 32 + 4.16 = 120 (raka’a)

Iron III oxide: Fe2O3 yana da adadin kwayoyin M = 56.2 + 16.3 = 160 (raka’a)

barium hydroxide Ba (OH)2 wanda adadin kwayoyinsa shine M = 137 + 2.(16+1) = 171 (dvC)

  1. b) % Oxygen a cikin nitric acid shine: 3.16 / 63 = 76.19%

% Oxygen a cikin calcium sulfate shine: 4.16 / 120 = 53.33%

% Oxygen a cikin baƙin ƙarfe III oxide shine: 16.3/160 = 30%

% Oxygen a cikin barium hydroxide: 32/171 = 18.71%

Ga duka Dabarun sinadarai na aji 8 don tunawa mai alaƙa da babin farko na sinadarai na aji 8: Abubuwan – Atoms – Molecules – Valence. Don samun damar yin darussan a cikin wannan sashe, ɗalibai suna buƙatar fahimtar ƙa’idodin gama-gari a cikin darasin tare da yin bitar darasi na misalan a hankali waɗanda aka yi dalla-dalla a sama.

Tsarin Sinadarai | Motsa jiki don yin dabarar sinadarai idan kun san valency

Yin darussan Chemistry ɗaya ne daga cikin matsaloli na asali masu yawa lokacin karatun Chemistry a aji 8 tare da cikakkun umarnin warwarewa. Muna bukatar mu san yadda ake yin shi da wasu mahimman bayanai don yin dabarun sinadarai cikin sauri da daidaito

1. Yi tsari na kashi ɗaya

Ƙirƙirar tsarin sinadarai na Karfe

An raba tsarin sinadarai cikin Kabori kamar tsarin sunadarai wanda yakan zo da alama tare da wannan alamar ta ƙarfe
Misali:
Tsarin sinadaran Natrium shine Na
Tsarin sinadarai na Kalium shine K
Tsarin sinadaran Calcium shine Ca
Tsarin sinadaran Iron shine Fe.

Samar da Chemistry na Nonmetals

Tsarin sinadarai na marasa ƙarfe yakan kasance a cikin sigar gaseous, don haka idan aka nuna akan tsarin sinadari yawanci muna da zarra guda biyu na abubuwan da ba na ƙarfe ba.
Misali:
Tsarin sinadaran hydrogen shine H2.
Tsarin sinadaran chlorine shine Cl2.
Tsarin sinadaran nitrogen shine N2.
Tsarin sinadaran Oxygen shine O2
Wasu sauran al’adun gargajiya, dabarun sinadarai marasa ƙarfe kuma na iya zama alamomin sinadarai
Misali:
Tsarin sinadarai na Carbon shine C
Tsarin sinadarai na Phosphorus shine P
Tsarin sinadarai na fili
Tsarin sinadaran Sulfur shine S

2. Yi tsari na fili

Ginin sinadari cakude ne da aka yi da sinadarai biyu ko fiye daban-daban.

Lokacin da muke ƙirƙira mahaɗan sinadarai muna buƙatar samun tabbataccen fahimtar ƙa’idar valency.
Menene chemotherapy?
Chemotherapy shine An ƙayyade na wani sinadari ne da adadin haɗin sinadarai da zarra na wannan sinadari ke yi a cikin kwayoyin halitta

Menene ka’idar chemotherapy?

Yi la’akari da mahaɗin sinadarai tare da tsarin gaba ɗaya

Ka'idar valence shine

3. Motsa Jiki na Sinadarai

Darasi na 1: Yi tsarin sinadarai don mahaɗan masu zuwa:
a. Ba da dabarar sinadarai na Cu (II) da Chlorine don samar da fili na Copper Chloride[CuCl2]
Magani:
Kira tsarin gaba ɗaya na fili.

large Cu_{x}Cl_{y}

Bisa ga ka’idar valence muna da: 2x=y
Zaɓi x=1, y=2 muna samun tsarin sinadarai na jan karfe chloride kamar yadda

KuCl_{2}

b. Yi tsarin sinadarai tsakanin Al da (NO3) don samar da Aluminum Nitrate [Al(NO3)3]
Magani:
Kira tsarin sinadarai na fili

Al_{x}(NO_{3})_{y}

– Bisa ga ka’idar valence, muna da: 3x=y
Zaɓan x=1, y=3 muna samun tsarin sinadarai na Aluminum nitrate wanda shine

Al(NO_{3})_{3}

c. Yi tsarin sinadarai na Calcium Phosphate mai ɗauke da sinadarin Ca da ƙungiyar phosphate (PO4) tare da adadi mai lamba 3
Magani:
Kira tsarin sinadarai na fili

Ca_{x}(PO_{4})_{y}

– Bisa ga ka’idar valence muna da: 2x=3y
Zaɓi x=3, y=2 muna samun tsarin sinadarai na Calcium phosphate a matsayin

Ca_{3}(PO_{4})_{2}

Darasi na 2: Yi tsarin sinadarai na ƙarfe tare da madaidaicin valence a cikin dabarar FeCl2 tare da ƙungiyar (OH) mai valence I.

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